The last decade has witnessed the rapid emergence of a new area research field at the interface of genomics and proteomics. The reach of proteogenomics has since expanded with technological advancements enabling rapid and economical high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing and deep mass spectrometry based proteomics that is leading us towards advancement of translation research. Additionally, with the advent of emerging next generation approaches the perspective of genome-characterization landscape has dramatically changed. The integration of proteomics with genomics and transcriptomics with subsequent identification of genes and proteins enhanced the value for delineating molecular signatures that helps in translating concepts into clinical practice.
The emerging field of metabolomics surveys metabolites, small molecule intermediates and products of metabolism that promotes insights by creating more comprehensive picture of the life sustaining physiological responses. When the biological system is disturbed by any external stress, the metabolic profile of an organism get subtly altered thus making it an excellent candidate for biomarker discovery. The emerging robust metabolomic strategies go well beyond the conventional clinical laboratory techniques to analyze hundreds and thousands of low molecular weight metabolites at a time. Since metabolome is at the nexus of all the factors, it can serve as a foundation of life science research.
These powerful technologies have significantly contributed in advancing clinical practice however individually each technology is unable to capture the biological complexity at a significant level. Thus integration of multiple technologies has been proposed to better harness the potential and decipher the comprehensive view of biology and disease. Integrative omics has been a competent strategy for identifying driver genes, as well as molecular signatures of a particular response or any disease condition.
The application of omic technologies rapidly changing the way we look into the complex relationships between molecular signatures of a response. Synthesizing data at the multiple levels through various disparate technologies helps in creating a link between layers of molecular mechanisms. This complex layering can be extended to high-dimensional integration models termed as system biology, in order to comprehend large multiplexed information. System biology deals with the qualitative measurement of large biological data through mathematical based modeling thus offers more comprehensive picture of the inner workings of the cell. Therefore, it provides an opportunity to develop new way of thinking about the current biology.